Professional Polymer Technology
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Early humans had to rely on the natural unprocessed glu […]
Early humans had to rely on the natural unprocessed glue found in adhesive applications. Tens of thousands of years ago, stones made from birch bark tar were used by humans. A two-part mixture of resin, plant gum and iron oxide, and starch-based adhesives were widely used by later civilizations to bond stone to wood, paper to fabric, and furniture.
The first commercial glue factory was established in the Netherlands in 1690. Glue production became an industry in the 18th and 19th centuries, but it was not until the 20th century that with the advent of new resins, plastics and the increased understanding of glues, adhesion science. Everyone in the United States now produces forty pounds of adhesive per year for garments, shoes, cars, construction, paper products and countless other products.
Vegetable or animal gums are still widely used due to their relatively low production costs and their environmentally friendly properties. However, glues made from natural materials have lower moisture, heat and chemical resistance than synthetic adhesives. In addition, synthetic adhesives can be formulated to have particular properties to facilitate their application and durability in their intended applications.
Rubber Glue is an elastomeric adhesive that is a large family of adhesives with many applications. Natural rubber has limited properties as a binder, but its properties are tailored to provide excellent adhesion to specific substrates, better temperature resistance and higher cohesive strength when processing and incorporating additives.
The adhesive industry is seeing a trend toward so-called eco-binders due to safety and environmental issues in the manufacture and application of certain synthetic adhesive. These are based on non-toxic, renewable materials and do not require special handling procedures. For eco-friendly, high-solids solvents, low-volatile organic compounds are used in formulations. These adhesives are less harmful to the manufac- turer and are non-toxic to the end consumer because they are non-flammable and do not contain degassed ingredients such as formaldehyde-based adhesives.